Their presence in politics and bureaucracy is also considered influential. He vehemently opposed the Tamil-Non Tamil and Brahmin-Non Brahmin separatist propaganda in the name of supposedly saving Tamil identity and non Brahmin communities respectively. [14] This and other displays of aggression are prominent during Thevar Jayanthi. The Mukkulathor people, who are also collectively known as Thevar, are a community or group of communities native to the central and southern districts of Tamil Nadu, India. Though the vestiges of such racism can still be seen among DMK and DK, they still need to bend in front of Thevar samadhi for his community’s votes. The DMK has traditionally held central Tamil Nadu, Chennai and the Kaveri delta region as its major stronghold, along with the constituencies of Chennai Urban in the north and the Christian-concentrated Kanyakumari in the south. Criminal Tribes Act was used by the Justice party to penalize backward communities which were not in its favour. Will ADMK Stand against Caste Politics - THEVAR & KAVUNDAR Community Separation | FunnettO Panneerselvam was there when Jayalalitha needed help. This even led to his imprisonment in 1942. [11], The Mukkulathors celebrate the coincident birth and death anniversary of U. Muthuramalingam Thevar (also spelled Mathuramaliga Thevar; 1908–1963) annually in October. Both names were originally granted to people as titles by poligars (local chieftains) but the holders were not exposed to caste-defining influences such as Brahmanic Hinduism, the concept of varna and practices such as endogamy until the late 18th century. In the end, the management of the Mahalakshmi Mills accepted the demands of the union. They have been recorded as practising female infanticide as recently as the 1990s. For instance, there have been MPs from the community in the Indian National Congress (INC) and the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) as well. Politics without spirituality is like a body without soul” is his quote through which many know him. THERE IS NO EVIDENCE OF MUKKULATHOR AS WARRIORS. In recent years, since 1958, these have been referred to as Southern-style Kalaripayattu, although they are distinct from the ancient martial art of Kalaripayattu itself that was historically the style found in Kerala. The only weapon they know was Valari.Iron Valaris were used only by Agamudaiyar community. [8] The community has mostly been given the status of Backward Class (BC) by the Government of Tamil Nadu,[9] although some subgroups are omitted. After this, Thevar became increasingly involved in labour reform activities. [5], In the period following Indian independence, the Mukkulathor or the Thevars have grown into, what Mines calls, a "super-caste" that combines the three previously distinct communities, emphasises their similarities and shared historical roles, and forms a consolidated base of support for the AIADMK political party. It has taken the emergence of caste based parties to open up Tamil politics to new categories. [b] The improvement of Dalit circumstances, together with a general rise in Dalit activism, led to many clashes with the Mukkulathors in rural areas. Damodraran Karthikeyan, a journalist-turned-academic, notes the historic animosity between the two groups and that "The institutionalised nature of Thevar Jayanthi, through consciously created myths surrounding Mathuramaliga Thevar, his iconisation, canonisation and the construction of a social identity provides a point of entry to study the process of how political power is ritually constructed through social ceremony. Immediately, the Justice Party collaborated with the British establishment and banned Thevar from addressing the public and leaving Ramnad district. Unlike the political samadhis of Anna, Karunanidhi and even Jayalalitha, Thevar’s mortal remains were laid to rest based on the traditions advocated by Shri Ramalinganar with a spiritual guru doing the necessary rituals. Ramachandran, the founder of the AIADMK and then, J. Jayalalithaa. Politics Until 1955, Ganesan was a staunch sympathizer of the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam. His efforts to denotify the group of castes, Maravar and Kallar (subgroups of Thevar community) – known to be the warrior castes of South Tamil Nadu, that were defined as Criminal Tribes by the British earned him respect and he subsequently became popular among the masses. Their Anti-Hindu and Anti-Indian nature, in general, made Thevar averse to their politics (That today’s DMK descended from the Justice Party is another matter). These clashes often involved the collusion of the police, who aided detention of so-called Dalit activists, assaults on people (especially women), and forcible displacement from Dalit villages. [2][clarification needed] The anthropologist Susan Bayly notes that both the Kallar and Maravar communities are relatively new caste entities. The Dalit surge since the 1980s was countered by the growth of the Jayanthi, which gave the Mukkulathors an opportunity to react against the Dalits and assert their own perceived superiority, historic status as rulers, and caste pride. He questioned the Justice Party’s acts of sucking up to the British regime and denigrating the indigenous faith and traditions. A committee consisting of Thevar, Dr. P. Varadarajulu Naidu, Perumal Thevar, Sasivarna Thevar and Navaneethakrishna Thevar was appointed by the convention to carry on the efforts to persuade the government to revoke the Act. Dalit engineer hacked to death in Tamil Nadu over caste differences but no action taken so far against the culprits. Political Career of Muthuramalinga Thevar: The British Government was having an act restricting the activities of Indians of certain castes and Muslims, under the ‘Criminal Tribes Act’ of 1871/CTA, with further amendments in the years 1911 and 1924. They are mostly listed as Other Backward Classes (OBC) by the National Commission for Backward Classes. The Thevar rise changes the grammar. “Karunanidhi (chief of the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or DMK) is wholly responsible for caste issues in this state,” begins Tho Pa, mincing no words. How did this happen? How is the name of poor Tilak so bitter to you Sir?”. This article was informative, specially in times when there was lot of controversy around stalin visiting his samadhi. Throughout his life, Thevar remained devoted to the nation and dharma which were his two eyes. It provides Latest Cinema News, Latest updates, Reviews, Celebrity news and interviews.This Channel is an Official News Channel of Cinema News. He flayed the anti-hindu, anti-national discourse of Justice party and Dravidian movement so much that his speeches were hated by the Dravidian movement followers. He had dedicated his life for communal harmony and worked for the welfare of all communities claimed Vaiko. Even as far back as the pre-independence times, Thevar realised the importance of Hindu unity and strived to achieve it through his efforts which can be understood from the fact that in a constituency where Thevars formed only about 18,000 voters, he won with 1 lakh votes. [3] Thereafter, the evolution as a caste developed as a result of various influences, including increased interaction with other groups as a consequence of jungle clearances, state-building and ideological shifts. The three constituent communities of Agamudayar, Kallar and Maravar believe themselves to share a common myth of origin formed through being the offspring of a relationship between Indra and a celestial woman. His Jayanthi and Punya thithi fall on the same day. The Mukkulathors treat Muthuramalingam Thevar as a deity (Theivathirumagan)[12] and it was from this time that the Jayanthi shifted from being a fairly minor affair to one of considerable significance. C. N. Annadurai caste: Senguntha Mudaliar caste (Father), Kalavanthulu caste (Mother) CR saraswathi caste: Kallar (Thevar) Dayanidhi Maran caste: Isai Vellalar (Father), Brahmin (Mother) Deepa Jayakumar caste: Brahmin; Dindigul I. Leoni caste: Nadar; Edappadi Palanisamy caste: Kongu Vellala Gounder; G. K. Vasan caste: Parkavakulam Nathaman Udayar Political analyst Gnani Sankaran though feels that this mushrooming of caste identities and parties is a passing phase. The DMK Has Been Two-Faced in Its Commitment Towards Social Justice. Abolishment of caste system began well before when everyone started to drop their caste names after their name which is followed by majority of peoples in the educated class. One such occasion – when in 1937 Provincial Elections, Congress stalwarts like Sardar Patel, Satyamurti and Rajaji decided to field a 29 year old Pasumpon Muthuramalinga Thevar against Justice Party’s star candidate Sethupathy Raja from Ramanathapuram. They comprise the Agamudayar, Kallar and Maravar communities that share a common myth of origin and claim to have once been members of various ancient South Indian dynasties. Thevar mobilized these marginalized communities against the atrocities of the Justice Party and gave Congress a landslide victory in 1937 provincial elections. Swatantra is an online journal which aims to bring our civilizational issues into mainstream discussion. Thevar travelled to Delhi on 17 July to attend the session of the Lok Sabha. [10], Human Rights Watch has documented allegations that the members of the government of Jayalalitha, including the chief minister herself, favoured the Mukkalathors during the 1990s, leading to them gaining influential positions in the police and in politics. According to R. Muthulakshmi of Madurai Kamaraj University, Thevar "literally means celestial beings or divine-natured people" and Mukkulathor means "three clans united together". Sankar, a Dalit man, was brutally murdered in March 2016 for marrying Kausalya, a woman from the socially dominant Thevar caste. That EVR who married his foster daughter to supposedly protect his properties – compared to Thevar who gifted away his vast wealth. His efforts to denotify the group of castes, Maravar and Kallar (subgroups of Thevar community) – known to be the warrior castes of South Tamil Nadu, that were defined as Criminal Tribes by the British earned him respect and he subsequently became popular among the masses. But by this time, differences arose between Thevar and Congress leadership because of the latter’s hesitation in abolishing the Criminal Tribes Act. Thevar distributed the 37 villages that belonged to him to Dalits – which is testament to the fact that he was beyond caste politics and why he had such a mass following. Thevar entered politics in 1927 after getting inspired by the speech of Netaji at the Congress convention in Chennai. The Gounder-caste dominated west and the Thevar-caste dominated south are considered AIADMK strongholds along with the upper-north region, with the exception of Chennai. He was a noted politician from the community and the event, known as Thevar Jayanthi, gained the approval of the Government of Tamil Nadu in 1993, which enabled the event to obtain police protection, road closures and the like. But the 29 year old Thevar emerged victorious by a huge margin without even campaigning. [13], A triumvirate of the three caste groups Agamudayar, Kallar and Maravar, Dalits in Tamil Nadu have become less dependent on Mukkulathors for employment due to the effects of India's, "Sasikala's bittersweet journey with Jaya", "TN: Cradle Baby Scheme in Districts With Low Sex Ratio", "Tamil Nadu Public Services Commission: List of Communities", "Central List of OBCs - State: Tamil Nadu", "K. A. Manikumar, Murder in Mudukulathur: Caste and Electoral Politics in Tamil Nadu", Genetic structure of four socio-culturally diversified caste populations of southwest India, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mukkulathor&oldid=994632529, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from August 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 18:49. Your email address will not be published. "[13], Thevars, traditionally practise a Tamil martial art variously known as Adimurai, chinna adi and varna ati. [4] Anthropologist Diane P. Mines affirms that the contemporary characterisation of the Thevar community derives from its precolonial past but was reified under the British Raj. The Dravidian movement was against caste. Politics around Inclusion – Exclusion of Sylhet... Munavvar Farooqui: Regrettable, but not Unexpected, The Unseen Indians: Fading tribal population of Wayanad, Politics around Inclusion – Exclusion of Sylhet and its Economic. He rightly identified the Justice party and the Dravidian movement as propagating cultural destruction in the name of atheism and Anti-Brahminism. Thevar also supported the temple entry act passed by the then Congress government in 1939 and played a crucial role in facilitating the entry of Dalits into Madurai Meenakshi temple. During a prolonged strike of the Pasumalai Mahalakshmi Mill Workers’ Union, demanding the reinstatement of a section of fired trade unionists, Thevar was jailed for seven months from 15 October 1938. Your email address will not be published. Visiting samadhis wouldn’t appear as a unique event to those who know somewhat about Tamil Nadu politics. Caste Politics Has Fuelled Hatred in Poll-Bound Tamil Nadu. With the expansion of the East India Company’s rule in India, the native rulers and their dependents suffered. Thevar mocked it asking, “In what way Jinnah is not a North Indian? However, the growing popularity of Thevar and rising anger against Congress over his imprisonment, led to the abolition of Criminal Tribes act. An undying pride in caste: Thevar prejudice returns with fury at Kausalya’s home. The Hindu 12 March From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The native rulers either submitted or rebelled. For instance, in 1911 the British designated the Thevars a "criminal caste", which Mines surmises arose from the community's precolonial role as village guardians or local chieftains but was precipitated by their resistance to British rule. 29 year old Thevar emerged victorious by a huge margin without even campaigning 2 ], Thevars traditionally... Image of Tamils among other Indians is to combat or resist BJP ’ s advancement in Tamil Nadu caste... 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